Above right, dogbane plants (Photo via Wikipedia). Well-crafted hemp textiles are durable, breathability and have strong thermal qualities, as well as being mildew-resistant and hypoallergenic. Researchers have also found bast fibers—likely nettle—at sites in the Czech Republic from around 32,000 years ago. It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. Production of aligned fiber assemblies can also be done at laboratory scaleÂ by combing the fibers in water, stretching them and air-drying them. At least 19 species grow in California, including narrow-leaf milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), which can be found in dry, open areas throughout the state, and showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa), which grows in more mountainous, wetter areas. The Hemp Fiber Classifier has revolutionized hemp fiber processing. Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. The CHTA is a national organization that promotes Canadian hemp and hemp products globally. It is one of the fastest growing biomasses. The long, strong […] “Hemp Bast Fiber Market has been riding a progressive growth trail over the recent past. The Bast (Fiber) When you slice a hemp stalk in half, you’ll see, nestled in a snug hollow tube, a long, string-like band running the length inside. In this way hemp shall gain access again into various fields of everyday human life. The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. In this way hemp shall gain access again into various fields of everyday human life. It is the first 100% mechanized process that can separate up to 60,000 lbs per hour (AKA 30 tons per hour) of hemp at a fraction of the cost of hemp decorticators. Cordage is an age old use for hemp fiber. Bast fiber processing systems built around hemp or flax may also support the development and processing of other bast fibers. We use 100% whole hemp stalks, which is commonly called bast. By manual yarn spinning, some fibres from the sliver are mounted on a rotating hook.Â The fibres are stretched during the twisting process and more fibres are added, while theÂ hand is moved backward to elongate the spun amount of yarn and keep a constant yarnÂ thickness. Hemp, cannabis plant cultivated for its useful bast fiber and nutritious edible seeds. The chemical composition of hemp root bast (HRB) was analyzed. In fact, Bast’s overall terpene profile is impressive and it may be due to these varied terpenes, or the cannabinoids including CBGA, or perhaps a combination of the two, that makes this strain a wonderful night-time sleep aid. The stalks of milkweed were much woodier than any of the other bast fiber plants. Bast Fibers • HempTrade Bast fibers, which grow on the outside of the plant’s woody inner core, are the raw material used in hemp textiles and even in nanotechnology applications. Bast fibers (in hemp, often referred to as “technical” fibers) grow on the outside of the stalks of the bast group of plants. The stalk and its fiber are used mainly in clothing, construction materials, paper, and more. Increased delivering speed from the drafting rollers decreases theÂ number of twists per length. Hemp fiber is cultivated from the plants belonging to the Cannabis genus. It is done by degradation or disruptionÂ of the middle lamellae between the single fibres. What Are People Saying? The woody core fibers are shortâabout 0.55 mmâand like hardwood fibers are cemented together with considerable lignin. a nettle-like plant native to eastern Asia used for coarse fabrics and rope. This usually happens right after harvesting the hemp in fields where the hemp is left to ret in the fields before making the trip to Bastcore. It has been conducted over many centuries, for end uses from textiles, ropes and sail cloth, to matrices for industrial products in the modern age. The textile materials made traditionally of hemp fibers are very strong and durable (such as sails fabric or hemp denim), while being breathable and flexible,. seed leaves). This is hemp’s famous bast fiber. The fibers we processed were finer than those of hemp and similar to those of flax. The Hemp Fiber Classifier has revolutionized hemp fiber processing. Europeans gave the Latin name Apocynum cannabinum to the plant because of the similarity between its fiber and that of hemp (Cannabis sativa). Bast fibers give the plants strength. The produced yarn can be wound on aÂ metal frame to get aligned fiber assemblies, ready for composite production. https://www.textileschool.com/226/hemp-fiber-natural-cellulose-bast-fibers Natural Bast Fibers are strong, cellulosic fibers obtained from the phloem or outer bark of jute, kenaf, flax and hemp plants. Processing Solutions. Some recent oilseed cultivars are grown Tooling Just for you. It is commonly called bast, which refers to the fibers which grow on the outside of the plant’s stalk. Dogbane grows and spreads easily in local conditions, reproducing through spreading roots as well as seeds. Ultrasonically fibrillated bast fiber (e.g., hemp, flax) is particularly suitable as a reinforcement for polymeric resins, thermoplastic, and thermoset composites. Bast fiber, also called phloem fiber, comes from the inner bark of the bast family group of plants, including hemp, flax, jute and kenaf. Bast fiber, also called phloem fiber, is a type of plant fiber that can be collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. As a source of bast fibers, floss fiber, and habitat, milkweed stands alongside hemp, flax, dogbane, and nettle as a valuable resource for our bioregion. During harvesting, the plant stalks are cut off close to the base or pulled up. Georgia-Pacific, a privately held subsidiary of Koch Industries, produced such brands as Brawny paper towels and Quilted Northern toilet paper. All Rights Reserved. This is hemp’s famous bast fiber. The 60,000-square-foot BastCore plant at 715 Shady St. takes in hemp stalks from a nearby farm to process into fiber, chips and other materials for use across different industries. Most bast fibers come from flax, industrial hemp, kenaf or jute. Industrial hemp is a non-wood fiber material that can be used for papermaking due to a high yield of hemp raw material and high-quality physical properties of its pulp. Hemp has many uses. Hemp Hurd Fiber. Bast fibers give the plants strength. The bottom row is hemp fiber fines resulting from the separation. Hemp bast fibers are a valuable source from which cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can be extracted. Dogbane in particular showed a promising balance of very fine fibers with relatively long fiber lengths. Enzyme treatment, wet oxidation andÂ NaOH treatment can degrade pectin and lignin in the middle lamellae between the single fibres. First hackling is done in two steps to straighten the fibers and remove shortÂ disordered fibers with a metal-pinned brush; this results in a sliver of parallel fibersÂ useful for spinning. Fiber cultivars are grown at high density and are unbranched and very Hemp bast fibers are a valuable source from which cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can be extracted. These fibers require relatively little processing compared to hemp, and fibers fine enough for many purposes can be obtained directly from dried stalks without retting or degumming. Similarly, textiles made from nettle pose no danger and have been used next to human skin for thousands of years. They are a family of fibers that allow for the entire plant to be used. The primary bast fibers in theÂ bark are 5â40 mm long, and are amalgamated in fiber bundles which can be 1â5 m long (secondary bast fibersÂ are about 2 mm long). Industrial hemp has one of the highest yields per acre of any natural fiber crop. After retting, the woody core is broken into small pieces that can be separated from theÂ fibers by decertification. Hemp fibers also can be blended with other fibers, such as cotton and linen, for specific textures and performance. Hemp Bast Fiber . Bast plants are characterized by long, strong fiber bundles that comprise the outer portion of the stalk. Bast fibers are flexible and are soft fibers that run lengthwise along the stems with a woody cellulosic core in the middle. Hemp belongs to the Angiosperm phylum since it hasÂ vessel elements in the woody core (xylem) like hardwood. Many other bast fiber plants have been used for textiles throughout history and the world. Above left, the star in the lower left corner of a map of historical fires shows the location of the dogbane patch. Your email address will not be published. The core fibers are generally considered too short for high-gradeÂ paper applications (a length of 3 mm is considered ideal), and too much lignin is present. Smaller, lower cost systems are also available. Alongside milkweed, it was the finest of the fibers we processed, and dogbane fibers were similar in length to those of nettle. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. Similarly, limited seed productivity concentrates the plantâs energy into production of fiber, and fiber cultivarsÂ often have a low genetic propensity for seed output. Hemp belongs to the Angiosperm phylum since it has vessel elements in the woody core (xylem) like hardwood. „Bast und Faser GmbH“ aspires the research and development of machines to extract fiber material from renewable resources. Hemp fibers can be approximately 3 to 15 feet (1 to 5 meters) in length. Milkweeds are named for an abundant, milky-white latex “sap” that seeps from injured portions of the plant. Photo by Devin Helmen. In addition to fiber and food, nettle offers a green dye from the leaves and a yellow dye from the roots. Fibershed’s Lead Process Engineer Nicholas Wenner. holosericea). the surface of the stem. earlier than the females, to produce superior fiber. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Earth. Ccore. Use Cases. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to 100 days. We processed fiber for the Bast Fiber Exhibit from narrowleaf milkweed grown at a site in Merced County, where Bowles Farming Company is working to bring an abundance of milkweed and other native seeds to restoration projects in the San Joaquin Valley (read more on our blog). Hemp fibers can be between approximately 3 – 15 feet long, running the length of the plant. Bast fibers can be obtained either from cultivated herbs, such as flax, hemp, and ramie, or wild plants, such as linden, wisteria, and mulberry. introduces one twist. surface. Hemp is also one of the bast fibers known from ancient times. at a moderate density and are short and relatively unbranched. Selecting monoecious strains overcomes the problem ofÂ differential maturation times and quality of male (staminate) and female (pistillate) plants (males mature 1â3Â weeks earlier). This is the woody, soft part of the hemp stalk. Another strategy has been to select stems that are hollow at the internodes,Â with limited wood, since this maximizes production of fiber in relation to supporting woody tissues. Content on this site is subject to our reposting policy. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is one of the most available and widely produced bast fibers with high cellulose content. In lab-scale, the fibres are isolated with hand In 2014 Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill allowed industrial hemp variety trials to be conducted in states where hemp was legal to cultivate. The company was founded in 2012 and is based in Adelsdorf. Most milkweed plants are toxic for human consumption due to these defenses, although some milkweed species may be made edible if properly processed. The fibers are traditionally separated from the other plant material through a process called retting. The stalk of the plant may produce around 1500 – 2000 lbs of textile-grade fiber per acre, compared to about 600-1200 lbs per acre for cotton, the flowering head can be used to produce CBD, and the remaining woody core can be turned into products such as building materials and bio-fuels. A Missed Opportunity to Learn from Failure, Tips For Looking After Organic Cotton Clothes. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. Nettle grows wild in wet areas, often by rivers and lakesides. Long slender primary fibers on the outer portion of the stalk characterize bast fiber plants. “Hemp Bast Fiber Market has been riding a progressive growth trail over the recent past. Members include farmers, processors, manufacturers, researchers, entrepreneurs and marketers The site is intended for all spectrum of users to learn and share the textile knowledge from a single platform. Hemp is traditionally known as a fiber plant and most historical cultivation of the plant in the United States from the 17th to mid-20th centuries was with fiber use in mind. When harvested correctly, the fiber is actually stronger than steel. Dogbane grows in moist, open habitats throughout North America, and it has served as a major fiber plant for Native American peoples for thousands of years. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. Hemp Stalk Bast. Mcore. The degree of branching and height are determined both by the density of the plants and their genetic background. Decortication & Processing. Bast fibers left to right: unbleached hemp sliver, bleached hemp top, and unbleached flax top. Bast Fibre Tech produces 100% plant-based, intact natural fibres with the technical and performance requirements for a wide variety of nonwoven applications. Bast Fibers’ goal is to develop and sell renewable natural fibers to manufacturers of composite materials with superior customer service, attention to quality and continuity of supply. Many of the material handling issues that we have helped clients with have featured unique commodities. The company was founded in 2012 and is based in Adelsdorf. Nettle (Urtica dioica) grows perennially in moist soils throughout North America. The fiber is one of the most valuable parts of the hemp plant. Featured samples ranged from a wood-like material created from shredded hemp fiber to long, fine strands of hemp for textile goods that can be blended with other natural fibers to add strength, comfort, and the ability to resist abrasion as well as mold/rotting. They are annually renewable crops, growing in 90 to 100 days. In textiles, the fibers provide strength and many other unique properties. Dogbane grows throughout much of North America. Use Cases. The focus of our research has been on the species that can grow in temperate regions of the world, namely flax, hemp, and kenaf. Bast refers to the phloem, or tissue that grows along the stems or trunks of plants. Bast fiber, also called phloem fiber, comes from the inner bark of the bast family group of plants, including hemp, flax, jute and kenaf. of the plants. The ring distributes the yarn onto a rotating bobbin. The twisting forces the fibers to take a helical structure andÂ results in inherent sliding friction between the fibers and in axialÂ strength in the yarn. The windrows are baled at 12% moisture content and the bales are transported for processing to remove and separate the bast and hurd fibers. Each traveller rotation We provide ongoing fiber development to meet the ever shifting requirements of our customers. Well drained, nitrogen rich and non-acidic soil are essential for hemp … Milkweed species also have benefits as habitat, providing strong nectar sources for pollinators and the sole habitat for caterpillars of the monarch butterfly. The primary hemp fibers can be used for composites, reinforcements, and specialty pulp and paper. HempTrain™ efficiently separates bast fiber from hurd in a processing technique that does not damage the fiber strings (bundles), keeping the fiber long, structurally intact retaining high tensile strength. This process can be replaced with the more controllable waterÂ retting procedure in which the plant stems are placed in tanks with 30-40Â°C hot water forÂ 4 days. It is commonly called bast, which refers to the fibers that grow on the outside of the woody interior of the plant’s stalk, and under the outer most part (the bark). Other specimens of narrowleaf milkweed or other species of milkweed might provide longer fibers, and the plants may serve as a source of fine bast fibers that would be suitable for spinning in short staple cotton systems, particularly in blends with cotton. Fig: Hemp fiber. Hemp crops are high-yield crops that produce more fibers than cotton or flax, per acre. This technique is basically alsoÂ used to make sliver of shorter fibres like flax fibres. How can I not be aware of how out of balance the systems that sustain us are? When Skip to … In fact, many landscapers and home gardeners struggle with dogbane taking over the areas they tend, and in some agricultural contexts the plant is considered a weed and competes well enough to create significant yield losses in fields of soy, corn, and other crops. What are bast fibers? At industrial scale, the stretching part of this process is called drafting. Narcotic plants are generally low, highlyÂ branched, and grown well-spaced. Publisher - a knowledge-base repository of textile articles. We paired specimens of each plant with samples of raw fiber, degummed fiber, hurd, seeds, and other products, such as edible leaves from nettle and flower buds from hemp. Steam explosion is another potential technology that has been experimentally applied to hemp. oilseed was traditionally well-spaced, and the plants developedÂ medium height and strong branching. BastCore’s connection to our broader fiber system will create opportunity for larger retailers looking to make inventive blends of hemp and Climate Beneficial Wool. For example, the Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok traditionally relied on the plant’s strong fibers for string, thread, rope, baskets, snares, netting, and clothing, and cordage from the plant was used to make straps, belts, netted bags, hairnets, and ceremonial regalia. Bast fibers have been highly regarded for beautiful, durable textiles throughout history and into the modern era. Bast fibers can be obtained either from cultivated herbs, such as flax, hemp, and ramie, or wild plants, such as linden, wisteria, and mulberry. The fiber is the most valuable part of the hemp plant. With permission and guidance from indigenous land tenders, we harvested dogbane for the Bast Fiber Exhibit from a patch in Sonoma County that has been continuously tended for thousands of years and is within the traditional and ancestral territory of Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok peoples. Hemp Bast Fiber Industry research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis The Global Hemp Bast Fiber Market -study provides comprehensive data which enhances the … The extracted fibres are in the form of large fibre bundles useful in non-wovenÂ fibre mats, which are made by air-drying and needle punching with uncontrolled and thereby random fiberÂ orientation. gracilis), hoary nettle can grow very tall, commonly reaching above 8 feet. Hemp has been widely cultivated as a source of bast fibers. The middle row is ½” bast fiber and ¼” bast fiber. In addition to working with hemp and flax last year (read more in our 2019 blogs), we collaborated with local farmers and indigenous land tenders to harvest and process three native bast fiber plants—dogbane, nettle, and milkweed—into fiber suitable for spinning into yarn. The retted fibre bundles of 0.5-2 m length are traditionally used directly for productionÂ of yarn for rope production. Above left, Edward Willie, a native Pomo, Walaeki, and Wintu teacher, visits a patch in Sonoma County that has been tended continuously by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Later the fibers may be cut to shorter lengths. Bast fiber is the plant fiber collected from the inner bark or “skin” that surrounds the stem of certain plants. It is commonly called bast fiber, which refers to the fibers that grow on the outside of the plant’s stalk. We have helped clients find solutions to convey a variety challenging products . Bast fibers are plant-based natural fibers, which are cellulosic fibers found in the phloem of the stalk of bast fiber crops like industrial hemp.. Hemp is annual crop with a growth cycle of as little as 90-100 days. That being said, some level of retting and degumming will likely be necessary for most textile purposes. As crops, the plants can play a valuable role in crop rotations and provide high yields of both food and fiber with relatively minimal inputs. Historically, so many different applications have been found for hemp’s stalk. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. The common features of natural fibers along with inherent mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of hemp fibers make them beneficial for reinforcements in polymer composite materials [35,59,60]. (Photo on the left by Nicholas Wenner, on the right by Paige Green). Micronized core wood. The fiber is the most valuable part of the hemp plant. Hemp fiber is one of the dominant classes of bast natural fibers, commonly procured from the hemp plant with the species of Cannabis. Hemp originates from Central Asia but can be cultivated fromÂ the Equator to the polar circle. Hemp bast stripes. Bast can be extracted from the inner barks of some trees, vines, and plants, such as hemp, nettle, and flax. (Photos by Nicholas Wenner, left, and Paige Green, right). Global Hemp Bast Fiber Market Industry research report covers the industry overview with Market Size, Share, Growth, futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data. Hemp fibers exhibit extraordinary properties: strength, durability, along with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. However, the short, bulky fibers found in the inner part of the plant (hurds) canÂ also be used to make cheaper grades of paper, apparently without greatly affecting quality of the printing With materials from each plant, we developed a Bast Fiber Exhibit for the 2019 Fibershed Gala and the 2019 Wool and Fine Fiber Symposium to provide both a tactile understanding of bast fiber processing and a hands-on comparison between fiber types. As part of our ongoing Bast Fiber Research effort, Fibershed engaged mechanical engineer Nicholas Wenner to connect with bast fiber growers, researchers, processors, and artisans to better understand the state of soil-to-soil systems for these unique plants. Hemp is swath or windrow cut for fiber production at about 8” between early bloom and seed set when the lower leaves of female plants begin to yellow. For our region, we envision an integrated system that could make use of multiple types of bast fiber plants. As a perennial plant that grows readily in our region—often growing abundantly in irrigation canals on its own—we see the potential for nettle to play a strong role in integrated food, fiber, and dye systems. We are working to fill the critical need for sustainable alternatives to man-made fibres. InÂ drafting, the fibres become straightened by passing the sliver through a series of rollersÂ with increasing rotational speed in the forward direction. Hemp Bast Fiber . Bast Fibers are annually renewable fiber crops with many environment-friendly features. HempTrain™ efficiently separates bast fiber from hurd in a processing technique that does not damage the fiber strings (bundles), keeping the … Dogbane fiber shows a good combination of fineness and length. Bast fiber, also called phloem fiber, is a type of plant fiber that can be collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. Natural bast fibers are highly versatile and can be customized for customer specific machinery, applications and performance needs. In former, labor-intensive times, the male plants were harvested To process each plant, we decorticated the stalks by hand to separate the outer raw fiber from the inner woody core, then degummed the raw fiber using heat and a solution of water and alkali to remove lignin and other binding substances, and washed, dried, and carded the fiber into clean, spinnable fiber. All three plants have value as perennial crops that grow well in local climates. Hemp is not competitive for newsprint, books, writing papers, and general paper (grocery bags, cof- properties compared to wood. HBS-products. It is commonly called bast, which refers to the fibers which grow on the outside of the plant’s stalk. It is the first 100% mechanized process that can separate up to 60,000 lbs per hour (AKA 30 tons per hour) of hemp at a fraction of the cost of hemp decorticators. What are Bast Fibers? It’s a surreal experience to be alive today. Hemp goes through a similar process to linen, called retting, using water to break down or rot the cellular tissues of the stem allowing the bundles of bast-fibers to separate from the stem of the plant. The bottom row is hemp fiber fines resulting from the separation. In ideal conditions, the plant can produce stalks greater than six feet tall and provide an abundance of very fine, strong fibers. Hemp fiber is one of the dominant classes of bast natural fibers, commonly procured from the hemp plant with the species of Cannabis. At the industrial scale, the hackling is performed using metal-pinnedÂ brushes and rotating rollers to pull the fibres forward. Chipped core wood. In the plant, bast fibers transport dissolved sugars and lend structural support for the stem. fee cups, napkins), although there is a specialty or novelty market for those specifically wishing to support theÂ hemp industry by purchasing hemp writing or printing paper despite the premium price. Hemp is a bast fiber plant similar to Flax, Kenaf, Jute, and Ramie. Bees pollinate part of a 4-acre milkweed plot in Merced County, where Bowles Farming Co. is working to bring an abundance of native milkweed seed to restoration projects in the San Joaquin Valley. These are long (bast) fibers and the short (core fibers). Improved microorganisms or enzymes could augment or replace traditional water retting. The fiber is around the outside of the plant and comprises one-third of the weight. Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. that grows to a height anywhere from 4-15 ft (1.2-4.5 m) and up to 0.75 in (2 cm) in diameter. Hemp and flax are the most well-known bast fibers, followed perhaps by ramie, a nettle-like plant native to eastern Asia used for coarse fabrics and rope. While the bast fibers were quite short—seldom reaching more than one inch long—they were extremely fine, similar to those of dogbane. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. Other desirable features of hemp fibers are strength and durability (particular resistance to decay),Â which made hemp useful in the past for rope, nets, sail-cloth, and oakum for caulking. Hemp fibers can be between approximately 0.91 m (3 ft) and 4.6 m (15 ft) long, running the length of the plant. Raw Hemp Fiber is one of the most valuable parts of the hemp plant. They are classified in the genus Asclepias, which sits in the same family as dogbane. Hemp hurds are the inner-core fiber of the hemp stalk. In length, they were shorter than hemp and flax fibers and similar to those of dogbane. The center photo shows hemp, flax, dogbane, nettle, and milkweed fiber. We have helped clients find solutions to convey a variety challenging products Since the nodesÂ tend to disrupt the length of the fiber bundles, thereby limiting quality, tall, relatively unbranched plants withÂ long internodes have been selected. In recent years, community members have worked to preserve and tend this patch amidst ongoing pressure from local development. Not much is known about the elusive and new Bast CBD hemp flower, but one thing is clear: this is a beta-myrcene power source. Stronger than steel variety of the most valuable part of the plant can stalks... To shorter lengths macerate and disrupt the parenchyma cells enzymes could augment bast fiber hemp traditional. Performance requirements for a wide range of products knowledge from a subspecies nettle... And durability for textiles throughout history and the short ( core fibers ) and of! 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