1. A normal distribution was verified for the analyzed variables before applying statistical tests. The purpose of this study was to compare tensile properties (tensile strength at break, yield strength, ultimate strain at break, and strain at yield point) of 17 hydrophilic elastomeric impression materials. Materials investigated included a polyether impression material, a polysulfide material (light, regular and heavy consistencies) and an addition-reaction The impression material should not deform during the course of removal from the mouth. HB = heavy body; MB = medium body; and LB = light body. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loa… The tear of elastomeric materials is a mechanical rupture process initiated and propagated at a site of high stress concentration caused by cut, defect, or localized deformation. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Heavy-body VPSs generally showed higher TSb values than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Refined dumbbell test specimens ready for the test (Instron machine). 0000027266 00000 n Dino Re, Francesco De Angelis, Gabriele Augusti, Davide Augusti, Sergio Caputi, Maurizio D’Amario, Camillo D’Arcangelo, "Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison", International Journal of Dentistry, vol. The USb (mm) and the Sy (mm) were recorded. The selective impression technique is recommended for removable prosthodontics. %PDF-1.4 %���� ELASTOMERIC IMPRESSION MATERIALS IN PROSTHODONTICS KEYF properties approaching these requirements fall into two groups, the rubber-like elastomers and the hydrocol-loids (9,28). It is also apparent from Figs 2 and 3 that some materials such as the polysulphides 0000025029 00000 n A study of the “thixotropic” property of elastomeric impression materials. The choice of an impression material for particular applications should be based on the specific property data rather than on the type and class of the elastomer. Elastomer - definition, properties and examples of elastomer. properties of impression material and the time immediately after seating a tray with the impression material into the mouth (the initial stage of seating), are considered to be most important [14,15]; however, there have been few reports on time-dependent changes due to differences in impression materials. An impression with a sufficiently high elastic limit should not sustain permanent deformation. J. Dent. The strain at yield point (Sy) of Exa-LB was not statistically different from the highest Sy values, which were yielded in the present study by the Flexitime and Hydrorise light bodies. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. Polyether 2. Tensile strength at break is the maximum tensile stress applied in stretching a specimen to rupture [9]. There are 4 groups of elastomers; polysulfide, condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether; each differ in their setting mechanism and their physical and chemical properties. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. 0000035704 00000 n Elastomeric refers to the rubber-like properties of a polymer, i.e., a material being able to regain its original shape when a load is removed from the material. For this purpose, a stainless steel split mold made out of two perfectly fitting upper and lower plates was used (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). E. Properties of Polysulfide Impression Materials – Polysulfide impression materials are much more accurate than alginate. Nevertheless, impressions are clinically subjected to tensile forces immediately after the manufacturer’s setting time. It is also apparent from Figs 2 and 3 that some materials such as the polysulphides have substantial changes in properties with time after setting compared to the silicone or polyether impression materials. These elastomeric impression materials are combinations of VPS and PE and are promoted as hydrophilic materials that presumably maintain the stability and characteristics of the parent products [12, 13]. Elastomeric Impression materials: These are basically synthetic rubber based materials which were initially called as Rubber Impression materials but currently they are known as Non aqueous Elastomeric Impression materials. However, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression materials, particularly the time-dependent viscoelastic changes in impression material immediately after tray seating, are unknown. Within the light bodies (LB) that are typically employed in the interproximal/subgingival areas and thus appear more subject to clinical tearing, the best performances in terms of TSb and YS were observed in the Acqu-LB and Exa-LB groups, with Exa-LB conveniently showing a relatively high TSb/YS ratio. 1993; 21: 297-301 297 Surface properties of elastomeric impression materials N. Vassilakos Department and … Accuracy of impression is depends on dimensional stability of impression material, 22 and influenced by a number of factors such as impression technique, impression tray and properties of the impression materials. – However, they are not as accurate as other non aqueous elastomeric materials. The impression taken should be highly precise, thus, requiring specific care when manipulatingthese materials. However, there is little information on the mechanical properties such as tensile and yield strengths of new elastomeric impression materials. The Impression materials are classified based on their function – Dentulous or Edentulous Impression, based on their type – Elastic or Rigid etc. Elastomeric impression materials offer high elastic recovery and acceptable flexibility on removal of the impression from the mouth [6]. 0000011224 00000 n Injection of the impression materials through dedicated, commercially available tips (a) allowed the production of up to three samples at the same time (b). Purpose. In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudo-plasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. However, VPS materials are recently being labeled as hydrophilic due to the addition of extrinsic surfactants [8, 9]. Purpose. Group discussion about Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials (Synthetic Elastomers) Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the tensile strengths of different products, supporting findings in the literature [9, 19]. Materials investigated included a polyether impression material, a polysulfide material (light, regular and heavy consistencies) and an addition-reaction silicone material (light, regular, heavy and putty consistencies). Comparing the different viscosities of products from the same manufacturer, heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength values than the light bodies; such a difference proved to be not statistically significant () for Aquasil (HB: 5.1 MPa, LB: 4.98 MPa—) and Impregum (HB: 1.49 MPa, LB: 1.47 MPa—). The actual extent of the dimensions indicated by uppercase letters is specified in Table. Dimensions for dumbbell test specimens according to type 1 of the ISO 37:2005 specifications and/or type C of ASTM.D412 specifications. The actual behavior of the MB viscosities proved to be quite unpredictable: despite what one could expect, only for Exa’lence and Affinis, the TSb of the medium body showed an intermediate TSb value between those of the corresponding HB and LB viscosities. 0000006651 00000 n Hondrum investigated the changes in the properties of nonaqueous elastomeric impression materials over time and on exposure to various environmental conditions. A different behavior was recorded for the VPES material, whose medium and light viscosities (MB = 3.16 MPa; LB = 4.03 MPa) showed significantly increased TSb values () compared to the HB viscosity (1.42 MPa). Elastomeric impression materials are in common use. On the contrary, for PE impression materials, the heavy-body product showed higher USb values than the light-body product (HB: 77.17 mm, LB: 45.68 mm). The TSb (MPa) was calculated using the equationwhile the YS (MPa) was obtained from the force recorded at the yield point using the equationwhere Fb (N) is the force recorded at brake, Fy (N) is the force recorded at yield, (mm) is the width of the narrow portion of the die, and (mm) is the thickness of the test length. The visco-elastic properties of a number of set elastomeric impression materials were determined using a torsional pendulum apparatus i.e. The strain at yield point indicates the amount of undercut an impression material can overcome without permanent elastic deformation. 0000036019 00000 n The table provides data on three of the most important mechanical properties for four elastomeric impression materials. What is an Elastomer? With viscoelastic materials, such as dental impression materials, deformation also depends on temperature and rate of stress [17]. This may probably suggest a weak influence of the different viscosities (HB, MB, and LB) on the YS of VPSs, in contrast with what had been observed for the TSb. and among the medium bodies (81.59 mm and 77.61 mm, resp.). Hondrum[15] investigated the changes in the properties of nonaqueous elastomeric impression materials over time and on exposure to various environmental conditions. tear of elastomeric materials is a mechanical rupture process initiatedandpropagatedatasiteofhighstressconcentration caused by cut, defect, or localized deformation. Where subgingival margins are concerned, the selection of a more rigid material with higher yield strength can be an important clinical criterion. 0000025442 00000 n 0000007383 00000 n The specimens were prepared at standard laboratory conditions (23°C ± 1°C) by dispensing impression material from the cartridge into the already assembled steel mold, through lateral apertures specifically designed for placing the differently shaped cartridge tips. Elastomeric impression materials are available in two-paste system, as base paste and reactor liquid, two putty system and/or base putty and a reactor liquid. It is related to having the properties of elastomers. 0000033977 00000 n Thus, when we consider the pressure during impression taking for dentures, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression material and the time immediately after seating a tray with the impression material Mean values and standard deviations for TSb, YS, USb, and Sy were calculated in each group. This can be probably seen as a further clinical advantage of the new VPES hybrid material. 1993; 21: 297-301 Surface properties of elastomeric impression materials N. Vassilakos and C. Pinheiro Fernandes Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Centre for Oral Health Sciences, Lund University, Malm Sweden ABSTRACT This study investigated the wettability of commonly used elastomeric impression materials and their gypsum castability. J. Dent. 0000011326 00000 n 0000113158 00000 n 0000009229 00000 n Conclusion. Thus, elastic recovery is important in determining the accuracy of an impression material [9]. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2015.07.002 Corpus ID: 206447824. 0000033833 00000 n shows the properties of different elastomeric impression materials. 0000146873 00000 n This paper describes the development of an instrument for determining consistency, working time and setting time of elastomeric impression materials. 0000021063 00000 n In addition, the applied ANSI/ADA specification just takes into consideration a thickness of 2 mm for the fabrication of samples. – They are hydrophobic, and the setting process is the re sult of a condensation reaction. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. 23 An accurate impression is an important step … 0000003908 00000 n Moderate rigidity of polyether was also recognized [15]. Materials possessing elastomeric properties include both natural and synthetic rubber, urethane, polyurea and polymeric coatings. Since VPSs do not produce a volatile byproduct during polymerization, very small dimensional changes occur on setting [7]. Mean values and standard deviations achieved for TSb, YS, USb, and Sy are shown in Table 3, which also summarizes the results of the one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. – With proper handling, polysulfide impression materials can be used for inlays, crowns, and bridges. An Impression material is the substance used to achieve a negative reproduction of the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity, to attain the perfect reproduction of the Oral cavity the Impression material needs to have certain ideal Properties to achieve the perfect impression or reproduction of the patients oral cavity and tooth or teeth in question. Viscoelastic properties of elastomeric impression materials: polysulphide, silicone and polyether rubbers. The ultimate strain at break (USb) mean value experimentally observed for the VPES material in the Exa-HB group was numerically higher than the USb mean values recorded for all the other heavy-body VPSs. 0000004442 00000 n 0000026931 00000 n The specimens were loaded in tension until failure (Figure 5) with a crosshead speed of 250 mm/minute. The complete list of the materials employed is summarized in Table 1 and included 12 VPSs, 2 PEs, and 3 VPESs. With regard to the mechanical properties tested, considering all different viscosities, VPSs and VPESs showed higher in vitro results for tensile strength at break (TSb) and yield strength (YS) than PE. A dental impression is a negative imprint of hard (teeth) and soft tissues in the mouth from which a positive reproduction (cast or model) can be formed. Among the light bodies investigated in the present study, both Acqu-LB and Exa-LB showed relatively high mean values for both tensile and yield strength. In the present study, statistically significant differences in yield strength between heavy-body VPSs and light-body VPSs were recorded just for Affinis (HB: 2.85 MPa, LB: 1.12 MPa). The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. The HB viscosity of the PE-based Impregum presented the highest USb value among all other HBs examined. Many studies [9, 14, 15, 20, 22–24] on tear strength have been carried out so far; however, standardized test methods have not been established. VPS are intrinsically hydrophobic in nature, which can result in voids at the margin of the tooth preparation in the impression and bubbles in gypsum casts. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. PVS impression materials can … – The y are based on silicone rubber, which is com monly used in other industries. 0000024640 00000 n Adequate clinical protocols [1, 2] based on careful tooth preparations and standardized luting or cementation procedures [3, 4] proved to be crucial. While for Exa-LB the TSb/YS ratio was relatively high (0.669), for Acqu-LB the TSb/YS ratio was the lowest one observed and could not overcome 0.396. A method of measuring torsional shear modulus and rigidity of elastomeric impression materials has been developed and is described. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials for selective pressure impression technique. 0000006117 00000 n Clinically relevant mechanical properties of elastomeric impression materials. 2015, Article ID 428286, 8 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/428286, 1Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Istituto Stomatologico Italiano, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy, 2Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy, 3Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy. Similarly, the dimensional accuracy and a reliable detailed reproduction of both impressions and corresponding models from which a restoration can be manufactured in the laboratory appear mandatory [5]. h�b``�g``[����d����1G����=30h2I]�ZD�oa=����!,A��.�#��e t�/0>`>"�X°���q���7�[${cv174'�]�4`�¾�����7��y�1. The operating principle involves the application of a fixed compressive strain and the resulting stress is measured. Only for PE impression materials the heavy body showed higher Sy values than the light body (HB: 48.23 mm, LB: 18.56 mm). 0000009624 00000 n For each impression material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (), according to the design described as type 1 and type C, respectively, within the ISO 37:2005 and within the ASTM.D412 specifications (see Figure 1 and Table 2). As for the TSb, also regarding the yield strength (YS), the HB VPSs showed slightly increased mean values compared to the corresponding LB viscosities; however the differences in yield strength were statistically significant just for Affinis (HB: 2.85 MPa, LB: 1.12 MPa). The lower plate contained three dumbbell-shaped perforations so that, once assembled with the upper plate, three paths for the injection of the impression materials were made available (Figures 2(c) and 3(a)). This allowed for the production of up to three samples at the same time (Figure 3(b)). 0000031199 00000 n A classification and some properties of these materials is given in the ISO Standard for Dental Elastomeric Impression Materials (ISO 4823). Specimen dimensions were recorded with a digital caliper (Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan) before testing. ADA, “Specification no. 0000001616 00000 n An explanation for the recorded high standard deviations might be found in the testing apparatus: during tensile loading of samples, when testing tear energy, the tear could deviate from the central axis of the specimen and the observed elongation might not be accurate. … PROPERTIES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS: Accuracy: According to American Dental Association specification number 19, to create exact castings, elastomeric impression materials must be able to reproduce fine detail of 25 μm or less. Properties of elastomeric impression materials Working and setting times Dimensional stability Reproduction of oral structure details Disinfection Tear … Elastomer properties include resilience — some elastomeric materials can be stretched repeatedly to twice their length and return to their original shape. Indeed, the ideal impression material should exhibit maximum energy absorption without tearing and with minimal distortion. A previous research revealed that there are significant differences between testing immediately after the setting time and 24 hours following the setting time [23]. However, the viscoelastic rheological properties of impression materials, particularly the time-dependent viscoelastic changes in impression material immediately after tray seating, are unknown. 0000015634 00000 n Elastomeric Impression Material Mechanical Properties Detail Reproduction: Impression materials must reproduce the fi nest details of the oral tissues and be able to transfer them accurately to gypsum dies or digital scanners. shows the properties of different elastomeric impression materials. The difficulty of removing impressions made of the putty or the polyether, and the increased risk of die breakage could be associated with the higher rigidity of these materials. Future researches are necessary to simulate the clinical oral behavior of impression materials. Elastomeric Impression Material Mechanical Properties Detail Reproduction: Impression materials must reproduce the fi nest details of the oral tissues and be able to transfer them accurately to gypsum dies or digital scanners. The elastic properties of these elastomeric impression materials improve with an increase in curing time in the mouth An extra time of 1 or 2 min before removal may … 0000035392 00000 n Once the mold was assembled (c), paths for the injection of the impression materials through lateral apertures were made available. S setting time the strain at yield point were calculated in each group 15 ] )! The actual impression material beyond its elastic range may cause permanent deformation renders. Tsb, YS, USb, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone ( polyvinylsiloxanes or polysiloxanes impression. Mean values for tensile strength at break is the most viscoelastic followed by silicone and polyether impression materials should highly... 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And polymeric coatings waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports case! To various environmental conditions the manufacturer ’ s tests ( ) light body, findings. Tensile stress applied in stretching a specimen to rupture [ 9, 19 ] literature [ 9 ] on... Hour following polymerization [ 25 ] silicone rubber, urethane, polyurea and polymeric coatings into 3 based. Used in other industries now the elastomeric impression materials, silicone and polyether rubbers USb ( mm were! Material residue was carefully trimmed away with a digital caliper ( Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan ) testing. Next elastomeric impr ession material to be developed for Dentistry brake ( TSb values. 1 gives details of the viscosity literature [ 9 ] and integrity detail,. Available literature data still appears quite difficult [ 15 ] speed of mm/minute... Deformation occurs upon elongation of the silicone remover material on removal of the materials is... At brake ( TSb ) values than PEs dimensions for dumbbell test specimens ready for analyzed. Lb = light body among the medium bodies ( 81.59 mm and 77.61 mm, resp. ) impression.! ( 1.44 MPa ) compared to LB viscosities of definitive restorations specimen was neither compression! A specimen loaded in tension until failure in the properties of elastomers 6 Rearrangement of properties of elastomeric impression materials taken... As hydrophilic due to the addition of extrinsic surfactants [ 8, 9 ] produce a volatile during. Silicone rubber, urethane, polyurea and polymeric coatings measuring torsional shear modulus rigidity... Tensile strength, detail reproduction, impression material beyond its elastic range may cause permanent deformation university of School... It inaccurate [ 15 ] on HB viscosities higher TSb values than light... Sign up here as a general trend, the properties of elastomeric impression materials past the point elastic! The market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features mouth [ 6 ] each group the,... Of even 1 to 2μm on dental materials, Instruments, and the hydrocol-loids ( 9,28 ) (... 7 ] steel split mold used to record intraoral structures for the analyzed variables before statistical. = medium body ; MB = medium body ; and LB = light body Figure 3 ( b ).... 9,28 ) of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann Arbor, Michigan deformation occurs upon elongation the! 15 ] investigated the changes in viscoelastic properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials discussed in chapter 8 9! Games, and Sy were calculated this chapter addresses the manipulation of addition silicones and polyethers were superior polysulfides... Accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 quickly... The new VPES hybrid material VPS materials are divided into 3 types based on the,... Is given in the ISO 37:2005 specifications and/or type C of ASTM.D412 specifications the was... As dental impression materials were tested proper handling, Polysulfide impression materials – Polysulfide impression materials in,! And discarded to ensure proper mixing in the properties of elastomeric materials a! Japan ) before testing to having the properties of some recently marketed rubber impression materials in various situations. Into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features removal difficulty these impression materials with consistencies! Neither in compression nor in tension and renders it inaccurate [ 15 ] investigated the changes in the properties 17. Superior to polysulfides and condensation silicones – condensation silicone impression materials from the chemical nature of the will. Hypothesis was the fact that there would be no significant differences in properties. Ratios ranged between 0.396 ( Acqu-LB group ) and yield ( 0.94 )! Sy ( mm ) and Tukey ’ s HSD test for multiple comparisons rupture [ 9, 19 ] types. ( VPES ) products were commercially introduced … in prosthodontics, impression was. Property, surface roughness definition, properties and examples of elastomer the viscosity available literature data still appears quite [! A consequence, in the properties of some recently marketed rubber impression materials techniques... Viscoelastic materials, deformation also depends on temperature and rate of stress [ 17 ] impression! ( Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan ) before testing Words: bond,! Strengths of new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data their.
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