However, it yields only a global score and thus provides little information about profiles of apathy, or the relative contributions of apathy subcomponents to overall severity. Informant rated symptoms from the 14-item Apathy Scale were used to generate apathy diagnoses based on standardised criteria.  |  Would you like email updates of new search results? Fifty-eight patients with PD were evaluated with the UPDRS, the 14-item Apathy Scale (AS), and standardized rating scales of depression and cognitive impairment. Item 4 from UPDRS • 14!item!scale,!modified’fromMarin ’ • Are!you!interested!in!learning!new!things?! However, in clinical research and in most pharmacological intervention studies, apathy is A review of the psychometric evidence. ety and apathy using standardized self-report measures. A cutoff of ≥14 is used to define the presence of apathy. In the present study, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.77. the diabetic sample after 16.7±2.5 months.Informant rated symptoms from the 14-item Apathy Scale were used to generate apathy diagnoses based on standardised criteria. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Measurements: Because both apathy and PSD can result in reduced physical function and ADL abilities, we used the 14-item Apathy Rating Scale (ARS) to evaluate levels of apathy within 1 week from the day the patients were able to leave their beds. Mele B, Goodarzi Z, Hanson HM, Holroyd-Leduc J. BMC Neurol. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Answers were scored against four grades (0-3), and the total score was used for the analysis. The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in 194 nondemented patients with early untreated PD. Epub 2014 Sep 17. USA.gov. Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) An 18-item instrument used for evaluation of apathy. For computation of the GDS apathy-3 subscale, one missing item was allowed and was subsequently imputed with the mean of the remaining two items (n = 73 of 2355, 3.1%). Noncognitive changes in behavior, however, are often more disruptive to adaptive functioning. Each item is rated on a scale from 1 to 4: 1 = behavior is not present 2 = behavior is present to slight degree 3 = behavior is present to moderate degree 4 = behavior is present to an extreme degree. 2011 Jan;70(1):73-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.012. Item 3 (insight or self-reflection) showed a negative item-total correlation, and removing this item raised the Cronbach's α of the second factor to 0.70, but did not substantially alter the other results. The Marin Apathy Inventory (Apathy Evaluation Scale) is a 14-item inventory measuring apathy of the subject over the past 2 to 4 weeks. Both the total score and factor scores of SAS showed fair discriminant validity. : The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in 194 nondemented patients with early untreated PD. Items are rated on a 0-to-3 Likert scale. Apathy was assessed using the modified 14-item Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) [11, 72]. Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) An … The AES, which uses 18 specific items to quantify apathy within a scoring range of 18 to 72, is an especially promising metric for apathy in AD. Apathy has been quantified using specific scales such as the Irritability-Apathy scale (Burns et al., 1990), Marin’ and colleagues’ apathy scale (1991) and Starkstein’ and colleagues’ 14-item scale (Starkstein et al., 1992). Psychometric Properties of the Apathy Scale in Advanced Parkinson's Disease. The Apathy Evaluation Scale was developed by Robert S. Marin, M.D. The interviewers’ ratings represented a clinical judgment based on information provided by the patient and a family member. Each answer is scored from 0 (not at all) to 3 (a lot), with a higher summary score meaning more apathy. : Although the SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with this PD sample indicate that item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale. Key Descriptions. The patient performed quite normally on cognitive testing but … Apathy was diagnosed using specific items of the AS together with proposed criteria for apathy. Development and validation studies are described in RS Marin, RC Biedrzycki, S Firinciogullari: “Reliability and Validity of the Apathy Evaluation Scale,” Psychiatry Research, 38:143-162, 1991 Both the total score and factor scores of SAS showed fair discriminant validity. For the present study, the apathy scale was used to gen- erate diagnoses by means of a specific diagnostic scheme (avail- Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Objective: Wetmore JB, Arbelo JM, Catalán MJ, Valldeoriola F, Rodriguez-Blazquez C, Martinez-Martin P. Parkinsons Dis. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. As expected, patients with a clinical diagnosis of apathy had significantly higher Apathy Scale scores, whereas patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression had significantly higher HAM-D scores. : Standardized rating scales for parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric symptoms. in older adults [ 19 ]. None of the patients in our study had received ECT in the past. The AS8is a 14-item self-report instrument that provides an acceptable and relatively quick screen for apathy. Clarke DE, Ko JY, Kuhl EA, van Reekum R, Salvador R, Marin RS. Item 7 from Brief Neuropsychiatric Inventory 6. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Patients with apathy had slightly lower MMSE scores than those without apathy. Although the 14-item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD), the psychometric attributes of this scale have not yet been fully evaluated. 2015;36(9):693-7. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2015.1022844. Design: Barriers and facilitators to diagnosing and managing apathy in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative study. 2019 Apr 30;6(5):379-386. doi: 10.1002/mdc3.12767. : The SAS showed fair internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.69) and exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: the first factor (24.2% of the variance) represented cognitive-behavioral aspects of apathy (items 1, 2, and 4-8; Cronbach's α = 0.74) and the second factor (15.0% of the variance) a general apathy dimension (items 3 and 9-14; Cronbach's α = 0.52). The correlation between these two factors was low (Spearman's r = 0.19, N = 194, p = 0.008), indicating clinically distinct dimensions, but both factor scores were strongly related to the total SAS score (Spearman's r > 0.6, N = 194, p < 0.0005). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The primary efficacy parameter was change in apathy at 12 weeks defined by the 14-item Apathy Scale (AS). Depressive symptoms were measured with the 12 remaining items of the GDS-15 (GDS-12D) [ 21 ]. The primary efficacy parameter was change in apathy at 12 weeks defined by the 14-item Apathy Scale (AS). 14-item apathy scale that can be used with patients and caregiv- ers (3–5). Cognitive deficits due to damage or disease affecting frontal lobe systems are well known to clinical neuroscientists. Factor Analysis of the Apathy Scale in Parkinson's Disease. We also thank all personnel who contributed to planning and conducting this study. Scales designed to more thoroughly assess apathy with multiple items include the 14-item Apathy Scale [ 18 ], the Apathy Inventory [ 31 ], and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). Another promising metric for apathy in patients with dementia is the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), which uses 18 specific items to quantify apathy with a score range from 18 to 72 and has been Sex-related differences in olfactory function and evaluation of possible confounding factors among patients with Parkinson's disease. There are a host of standardized measures of frontal cognitive changes, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Test. Compared with the 14-item apathy scale , the GDS apathy-3 subscale has a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 85% . Cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). : Cross-sectional multicenter population-based study from Western and Southern Norway. The Norwegian ParkWest study was funded by the Western Norway Regional Health Authority (grant # 911218) and the Research Council of Norway (grant # 177966). Apathy Scale (AS) [ Time Frame: Baseline (Visit 1) ] 14-item self-report questionnaire assessing symptoms of apathy over the previous 2-4 weeks. eCollection 2019 Jun. Effect of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction and Motor Symptoms on Body Weight in Patients with Parkinson's Disease. (6) Apathy was assessed using the Apathy Scale (AS) [6] (14 item self-report measure rated 0–4 with a maximum score of 56). Conclusions: Epub 2011 Sep 13. Lopez FV, Eglit GML, Schiehser DM, Pirogovsky-Turk E, Litvan I, Lessig S, Filoteo JV. J Psychosom Res. Higher scores were indicated more symptoms of apathy. Can be self-rated or rated by a clinician or significant other. Subjects are instructed to choose an answer from 0 to 3: 0=not at all, 1 = slightly, 2 = some, 3 = a lot, to questions related to apathy. Masala C, Loy F, Piras R, Liscia A, Fadda L, Moat A, Solla P, Defazio G. Brain Sci. Apathy in untreated, de novo patients with Parkinson's disease: validation study of Apathy Evaluation Scale. Background: The GDS-3A has been reported to have a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 85% in detecting apathy based on the customary cut off (>13) of the 14-item apathy scale of Starkstein et al. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Results: with the 14-item Apathy Scale,41 the GDS-3A has a mean sensitivity of 0.69 and specificity of 0.85 among older adults (≥85 years).40 Confounders. Informant rated symptoms from the 14-item Apathy Scale were used to generate apathy diagnoses based on standardized criteria. RESULTS: Of 2514 patients screened, only 377 (15%) were eligible for the study after the first screening, 233 declined further participation, and 144 were assessed for apathy at 8-36 weeks post stroke to confirm eligibility. For the present study, the apathy scale was used to generate diagnoses by means of a specific diagnostic scheme (available from the authors). Background Although the 14-item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD), the psychometric attributes of this scale have not yet been fully evaluated. 2019 Mar 28;2019:1965394. doi: 10.1155/2019/1965394. 2012 Jan;27(1):79-83. doi: 10.1002/mds.23939. The authors have no disclosures to report. Clinical assessments of apathy and potential causative conditions, repeated in the diabetic sample after 16.7 ± 2.5 months. Santangelo G, Barone P, Cuoco S, Raimo S, Pezzella D, Picillo M, Erro R, Moccia M, Pellecchia MT, Amboni M, Santangelo F, Grossi D, Trojano L, Vitale C. J Neurol. : Although the 14-item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD), the psychometric attributes of this scale have not yet been fully evaluated. NIH NLM Van der Mast et al 11 reported a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 85% for this subscale compared with the 14-item Apathy Scale of Starkstein et al 17 in participants 85 years or older. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 2019 May 24;19(1):101. doi: 10.1186/s12883-019-1329-z. Gallagher DA, Goetz CG, Stebbins G, Lees AJ, Schrag A. Mov Disord. For example, Eslinger and Damasio1described a patient who sustained a severe inferior frontal lesion. Cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). To quantify apathy, we used the Japanese version of the Apathy Scale (AS) by Starkstein et al. [Factorial analysis and internal consistency of the French version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 20), in obese women]. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31823038f2. The SAS showed fair internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.69) and exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: the first factor (24.2% of the variance) represented cognitive-behavioral aspects of apathy (items 1, 2, and 4–8; Cronbach's α = 0.74) and the second factor (15.0% of the variance) a general apathy dimension (items 3 and 9–14; Cronbach's α = 0.52). We used the recommended cut-off of 414 [6]. 14-item instrument; Minimum score is 14; maximum score is 56. Epub 2019 Sep 25. The AS is a 14-item self-report scale that measures spontaneity, initiation, emotionality, activity level, and interest in hobbies. [19-21]. ARTICLE IN PRESS Table 1 Clinical and demographic characterstics, Parkinson’s disease patients Mean (SD) Range ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Psychometric Properties of the Starkstein Apathy Scale in Patients With Early Untreated Parkinson Disease. Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS) A 14-item instrument used for serial assessment of agitation by clinician raters. Although the SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with this PD sample indicate that item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale. Solla P, Masala C, Liscia A, Piras R, Ercoli T, Fadda L, Hummel T, Haenher A, Defazio G. J Neurol.  |  Standardized rating scales for parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric symptoms. 2020 Apr 7;10(4):218. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10040218. Mov Disord Clin Pract. Informant rated symptoms from the 14-item Apathy Scale were used to generate apathy diagnoses based on standardized criteria. Factorial analysis and internal consistency of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale ( AS ) frontal cognitive changes, AS! Advanced features are temporarily unavailable ( MMSE ) and Clinical Dementia Rating CDR. 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